Team:NTU Taiwan/index.html

From 2013.igem.org

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                         <ul>
                         <ul>
                             <li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/NationalTaiwanUniversityBSTiGEM" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li>
                             <li><a href="https://www.facebook.com/NationalTaiwanUniversityBSTiGEM" target="_blank">Facebook</a></li>
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                             <li><a href="http://igem.org/Team.cgi" target="_blank">IGem Website</a></li>
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                             <li><a href="http://igem.org/Team.cgi" target="_blank">iGEM Website</a></li>
                             <li><a href="mailto:igemntubest@gmail.com" target="_blank">Email Us</a></li>
                             <li><a href="mailto:igemntubest@gmail.com" target="_blank">Email Us</a></li>
                         </ul>
                         </ul>
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                 White and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) serve important opposite functions in overall energy balance. While WAT is specialized in energy storage in the form of triacylglycerols, BAT functions to dissipate energy in the form of heat (thermogenesis).BAT possess abundant mitochondria with uncoupling proteins 1(UCP1). UCP1 is a 6-transmembrane protein in inner mitochondria membrane, and it has been proposed to constitute three symmetrical membrane-spanning &ldquo;Us&rdquo;, each comprising about 100 amino acids(fig.1).The functional UCP is believed to be dimer.
                 White and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) serve important opposite functions in overall energy balance. While WAT is specialized in energy storage in the form of triacylglycerols, BAT functions to dissipate energy in the form of heat (thermogenesis).BAT possess abundant mitochondria with uncoupling proteins 1(UCP1). UCP1 is a 6-transmembrane protein in inner mitochondria membrane, and it has been proposed to constitute three symmetrical membrane-spanning &ldquo;Us&rdquo;, each comprising about 100 amino acids(fig.1).The functional UCP is believed to be dimer.
             </p>
             </p>
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             <img class="tipReveal img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/2/26/NTU_TAIWAN_Image001.png" alt-src="images/image001.png">
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             <img class="tipReveal img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/2/26/NTU_TAIWAN_Image001.png" alt-src="images/image001.png"> <!--help!!!圖片放中間-->
             <div class="tip">
             <div class="tip">
                 (fig.1 The protein (33kDa,306 amino acids) contains six transmembrane alpha-helices, proposed to constitute three symmetric repeats.)
                 (fig.1 The protein (33kDa,306 amino acids) contains six transmembrane alpha-helices, proposed to constitute three symmetric repeats.)
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                 <li>Kyoto iGEM team: <br/><br/>
                 <li>Kyoto iGEM team: <br/><br/>
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                         <div class="col-md-7" style="margin-top: 30px">
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                             <p>We help Kyoto iGEM team to charaterise their parts. They sent 13 parts to us. We keep discussing how to design the construction and which gene should we use in the characterisation.</p>
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                             <p>We help Kyoto iGEM team to charaterise their parts. They sent 13 parts to us. First, we transformed their parts into <i>E.coli</i> and do sequence. Then We keep discussing how to design the construction and which gene should we use in the characterisation.</p>
                         </div>
                         </div>
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                     </div>
                     </div>
                 </li>
                 </li>
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                 <li>NTU_Taida iGEM team: <br/>
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                 <li>NTU_Taida iGEM team: <br/><br/>
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                        <div class="col-md-7" style="margin-top: 30px">
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                            <p>Because we are in the same university, we exchange a lot of information to each other. For expample, they shared the experience in iGEM compeitiotn to us and we help them conduct some experiment like preparing competent cells and transformation.</p>
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                        </div>
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                </li>
             </ul>
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             <section id="teamContainer" class="blue-background" cur-color="blue-background">
             <section id="teamContainer" class="blue-background" cur-color="blue-background">
                 <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-5"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/38/李易遠.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李易遠.jpg"></div>
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/38/李易遠.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李易遠.jpg"></div>
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                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>李易遠(Yi-Yuan Lee)</h2>
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                         <h2>李易遠 (Yi-Yuan Lee)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b><u>Team Leader</u></b>
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                             <b><u>Team Leader & Lab Hero</u></b>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Reading, Calligraphy, Ballroom dance, Swimming, Traveling </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Reading, Calligraphy, Ballroom dance, Swimming, Traveling </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Bioinformatics, Virology </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Bioinformatics, Programming, Asian history </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/38/李易遠.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李易遠.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/38/李易遠.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李易遠.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>李易遠(Yi-Yuan Lee)</h2>
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                         <h2>李易遠 (Yi-Yuan Lee)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b><u>Team Leader</u></b>
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                             <b><u>Team Leader & Lab Hero</u></b>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Reading, Calligraphy, Ballroom dance, Swimming, Traveling </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Reading, Calligraphy, Ballroom dance, Swimming, Traveling </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Bioinformatics, Virology </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Bioinformatics, Programming, Asian history </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                 <div class="row">
                 <div class="row">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>吳泰億(Tai-Yi Wu)</h2>
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                         <h2>吳泰億 (Tai-Yi Wu)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Lily LOL Fighter</u></b>
                             <b><u>Lily LOL Fighter</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> swim, music, stage play </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> swim, music, stage play </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Fermentology, Applied Microbiology  </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Fermentology, Applied Microbiology  </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/6/67/呂宗諭.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/呂宗諭.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/6/67/呂宗諭.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/呂宗諭.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>呂宗諭(Tsung-Yu Lu)</h2>
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                         <h2>呂宗諭 (Tsung-Yu Lu)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Chief of Lab Hero</u></b>
                             <b><u>Chief of Lab Hero</u></b>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Department: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Biochemical Science and Technology </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Department: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Insititute of Biochemial Sciences </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> swim, music, stage play </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> swim, music, stage play </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> protein engineering, mathematical biology </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> protein engineering, mathematical biology </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
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                         <h2>張宏宇(Hung-Yu Chang)</h2>
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                         <h2>張宏宇 (Hung-Yu Chang)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b><u>Lab Surfer</u></b>
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                             <b><u>Lab Surfer & Lab Hero</u></b>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Debate, Tennis, Surfing </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Debate, Tennis, Surfing </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Cell Biology, Tissue Engineering </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/4/46/王德緯.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/王德緯.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/4/46/王德緯.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/王德緯.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>王德緯(Te-Wei Wang)</h2>
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                         <h2>王德緯 (Te-Wei Wang)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Lab Physician</u></b>
                             <b><u>Lab Physician</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading, movie, volleyball, Japanese </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading, movie, volleyball, Japanese </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> physiology, immunology, neurology </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> physiology, immunology, neurology </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
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                         <h2>馬蓁華(Chen-Hwa Ma)</h2>
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                         <h2>馬蓁華 (Chen-Hwa Ma)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Lab Anego</u></b>
                             <b><u>Lab Anego</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> traveling, reading </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> traveling, reading </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> sociology, literature, biochemistry </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> sociology, literature, biochemistry </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/5/5e/陳俋秀.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/陳俋秀.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>陳俋秀(Yi-Hsiu Chen)</h2>
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                         <h2>陳俋秀 (Yi-Hsiu Chen)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Fake Secretary</u></b>
                             <b><u>Fake Secretary</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading,playing,volleyball,movie </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading,playing,volleyball,movie </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Nutritional </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Immunology, Nutritional </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                 <div class="row">
                 <div class="row">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
-
                         <h2>盧彥云(Yen-Yun Lu)</h2>
+
                         <h2>盧彥云 (Yen-Yun Lu)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>LuLu</u></b>
                             <b><u>LuLu</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> dance, cooking, traveling, reading </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> dance, cooking, traveling, reading </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Molecular biology, cell biology </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Molecular biology, cell biology </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/6/68/王柏軒.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/王柏軒.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/6/68/王柏軒.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/王柏軒.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
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                         <h2>王柏軒(Po-Hsien Wang)</h2>
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                         <h2>王柏軒 (Po-Hsien Wang)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Web Hacker</u></b>
                             <b><u>Web Hacker</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading, movie </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> reading, movie </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> AI, Virtual Reality </div>
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                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> AI, Virtual Reality </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                 <div class="row">
                 <div class="row">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
-
                         <h2>李威(Wei Lee)</h2>
+
                         <h2>李威 (Wei Lee)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Niwei</u></b>
                             <b><u>Niwei</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> badminton, photography, reading </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> badminton, photography, reading </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Communication, AI, App & Web developing </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Communication, AI, App & Web developing </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/33/李啟為.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李啟為.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/3/33/李啟為.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/李啟為.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
-
                         <h2>李啟為(Chi-Wei Lee)</h2>
+
                         <h2>李啟為 (Chi-Wei Lee)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Y-way</u></b>
                             <b><u>Y-way</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> baseball, girl, post rock </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> baseball, girl, post rock </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> ML, AI, probability graphical model </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> ML, AI, probability graphical model </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                 <div class="row">
                 <div class="row">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
-
                         <h2>王凡(Fang Wang)</h2>
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                         <h2>王凡 (Fang Wang)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Secret staff</u></b>
                             <b><u>Secret staff</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> fixed gear, table tennis, photography </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> fixed gear, table tennis, photography </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Computational photography, App </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> Computational photography, App </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/f/fa/林湧達.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/林湧達.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-4"><img class="img-responsive" src="http://2013.igem.org/wiki/images/f/fa/林湧達.jpg" alt-src="./images/people/林湧達.jpg"></div>
                     <div class="col-md-8">
                     <div class="col-md-8">
-
                         <h2>林湧達(Yung-Ta Lin)</h2>
+
                         <h2>林湧達 (Yung-Ta Lin)</h2>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
                             <b><u>Lynda</u></b>
                             <b><u>Lynda</u></b>
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                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interests: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> drawing, tennis, tap dance, Chinese comedy </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Hobbies: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> drawing, tennis, tap dance, Chinese comedy </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
-
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> UI, HCI, VR </div>
+
                             <b class="col-md-4"> Interested fields: </b> <div class="col-md-8"> UI, HCI, VR </div>
                         </div>
                         </div>
                         <div class="row">
                         <div class="row">
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             Do the biological materials used in your lab work pose any risks to…</b><br/><br/>
             Do the biological materials used in your lab work pose any risks to…</b><br/><br/>
             <ul style="list-style:style"><b>
             <ul style="list-style:style"><b>
-
                 <li> -the safety and health of team members or others working in the lab?</li>
+
                 <li> -the safety and health of team members or others working in the lab? <br/> -the safety and health of the general public, if released by design or by accident?</li>
-
               
+
           
-
                <li> -the safety and health of the general public, if released by design or by accident?</li>
+
                 <ul></b>
                 <ul></b>
-
                     <li> Here is a list of the chassis organisms that we use in our project : Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Rhodotorula glutinis. These are all Biosafety Level 1 organisms and non-pathogenic, therefore pose no severe threat to the researchers or any healthy human. </li>
+
                     <li> Here is a list of the chassis organisms that we use in our project : <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>, and <i>Rhodotorula glutinis</i>. These are all Biosafety Level 1 organisms and non-pathogenic, therefore pose no severe threat to the researchers or any healthy human. </li>
                 </ul><b>
                 </ul><b>
                 <li> -the environment, if released by design or by accident?</li>
                 <li> -the environment, if released by design or by accident?</li>
                 <ul></b>
                 <ul></b>
-
                     <li>For the same reasons above, there would be minimum chance of the organisms causing any great harm to the environment. Our E. coli transformants do carry an ampicillin resistant gene, so accidental release of the bacteria might result in a spread of the antibiotic resistant phenotype. However, all our experiments are conducted under safe procedures and the equipments used for bacteria cells and/or cultures are properly autoclaved. </li>
+
                     <li>For the same reasons above, there would be minimum chance of the organisms causing any great harm to the environment. Our <i>E. coli</i> transformants do carry an ampicillin resistant gene, so accidental release of the bacteria might result in a spread of the antibiotic resistant phenotype. However, all our experiments are conducted under safe procedures and the equipments used for bacteria cells and/or cultures are properly autoclaved. </li>
                 </ul><b>
                 </ul><b>
                 <li> -security through malicious misuse by individuals, groups, or countries? </li>
                 <li> -security through malicious misuse by individuals, groups, or countries? </li>
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         <p style="margin-left: 80px">
         <p style="margin-left: 80px">
         1.  Contact with high density of cells may cause harmful effects on people.<br/>
         1.  Contact with high density of cells may cause harmful effects on people.<br/>
-
         2.  Release of cell culture into the environment may cause fish infection and perturbation of the ecosystem.<br/></p>
+
         &nbsp &nbsp2.  Release of cell culture into the environment may cause fish infection and perturbation of the ecosystem.<br/></p>
          
          
         <b>Does your project include any design features to address safety risks?</b><br/>
         <b>Does your project include any design features to address safety risks?</b><br/>
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         <p style="margin-left: 40 px">In case of an accidental release of the thermogenic yeasts from our device to the environment, we have designed a kill switch that would ideologically lead the yeasts to death under such circumstance.<br/>
         <p style="margin-left: 40 px">In case of an accidental release of the thermogenic yeasts from our device to the environment, we have designed a kill switch that would ideologically lead the yeasts to death under such circumstance.<br/>
         When faced with an increasing osmaolarity of the environment, the HOG pathway is activated in yeasts and the final result is the accumulation of glycerol in yeast cells to balance the exterior osmotic pressure. Sensors of the ambient osmolarity rise activates a MAPK cascade and eventually leads to the phosphorylation and activation of the Hog1 protein. Activated Hog1 then translocates into the nucleus and activates a number of transcriptional factors via protein-protein interactions or phosphorylation. These transcriptional factors (mostly activators) then mediate the expression of hundreds of genes related to cell integrity and adaptation to osmostress. Among these, the GPD1 gene and the STL1 gene are the most significant targets of the HOG pathway. GPD1 encodes the sequences for NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is the key enzyme of glycerol sythesis. Following activation of the HOG pathway, activated Hog1 binds to the transcriptional acitvator Hot1 and upregulates the expression of GPD1. On the other hand, STL1 codes for a glycerol proton symporter in the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae. Upon sensing a rise in osmolarity, STL1 is strongly and transiently induced by transcriptional activators Hot1 and Smp1, both members of the HOG pathway. Smp1 is phosphorylated and activated by the active Hog1 protein. Thus, the sensing of osmolarity and the induction of GPD1 and STL1 expression will make up mainly the fist part of our kill switch.<br/>
         When faced with an increasing osmaolarity of the environment, the HOG pathway is activated in yeasts and the final result is the accumulation of glycerol in yeast cells to balance the exterior osmotic pressure. Sensors of the ambient osmolarity rise activates a MAPK cascade and eventually leads to the phosphorylation and activation of the Hog1 protein. Activated Hog1 then translocates into the nucleus and activates a number of transcriptional factors via protein-protein interactions or phosphorylation. These transcriptional factors (mostly activators) then mediate the expression of hundreds of genes related to cell integrity and adaptation to osmostress. Among these, the GPD1 gene and the STL1 gene are the most significant targets of the HOG pathway. GPD1 encodes the sequences for NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is the key enzyme of glycerol sythesis. Following activation of the HOG pathway, activated Hog1 binds to the transcriptional acitvator Hot1 and upregulates the expression of GPD1. On the other hand, STL1 codes for a glycerol proton symporter in the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae. Upon sensing a rise in osmolarity, STL1 is strongly and transiently induced by transcriptional activators Hot1 and Smp1, both members of the HOG pathway. Smp1 is phosphorylated and activated by the active Hog1 protein. Thus, the sensing of osmolarity and the induction of GPD1 and STL1 expression will make up mainly the fist part of our kill switch.<br/>
-
         In order to complete our kill switch so that increasing osmolarity not only activates the HOG pathway, but also leads to cell death, we further integrate a kill gene following the promoter sequence of GPD1 and STL1. The most suitable genes would be those encoding proteins that have nuclease activity. A couple of chosen examples are NUC1 (encoding endonuclease G) and YBL055C (encoding Tat-D nuclease). Endonuclease G is the major mitochondrial nuclease in S. cerevisiae, and it induces apoptosis in yeast independently of metacaspase or of apoptosis inducing factors. Tat-D is an endo-/exo-nuclease that incises the double stranded DNA without obvious specificity via its endonuclease activity and excises the DNA from 3' to 5' end by its exonuclease activity. These proteins are intrinsically expressed during apoptosis, and their induction via osmosensitive promoters would cause irreversible harm to the yeasts and in the end kill them.<br/>
+
         &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspIn order to complete our kill switch so that increasing osmolarity not only activates the HOG pathway, but also leads to cell death, we further integrate a kill gene following the promoter sequence of GPD1 and STL1. The most suitable genes would be those encoding proteins that have nuclease activity. A couple of chosen examples are NUC1 (encoding endonuclease G) and YBL055C (encoding Tat-D nuclease). Endonuclease G is the major mitochondrial nuclease in S. cerevisiae, and it induces apoptosis in yeast independently of metacaspase or of apoptosis inducing factors. Tat-D is an endo-/exo-nuclease that incises the double stranded DNA without obvious specificity via its endonuclease activity and excises the DNA from 3' to 5' end by its exonuclease activity. These proteins are intrinsically expressed during apoptosis, and their induction via osmosensitive promoters would cause irreversible harm to the yeasts and in the end kill them.<br/>
-
         According to data from current milkfish farms in Taiwan, which are saltwater farms, water osmolarity is way higher than yeast culturing environments. Therefore the HOG pathway would surely be activated once the yeasts escape from the thermogenic device, with following cell death. If the device is to be used in a fish farm with fresh water, the osmolarity would very likely be lower than the yeast culture. In light of this possibility, we are also looking into another mechanism of S. cerevisiae that is used when it is subjected to low osmolarity stress. It is called the cell integrity pathway, and is activated upon decreasing osmolarity of the environment. We hope to find similar functioning effectors downstream of the pathway like we did in the HOG pathway, and integrate the activated promoters with kill genes. If succeeded, our safety design will not be restricted to saltwater fish farms.<br/></p>
+
         &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspAccording to data from current milkfish farms in Taiwan, which are saltwater farms, water osmolarity is way higher than yeast culturing environments. Therefore the HOG pathway would surely be activated once the yeasts escape from the thermogenic device, with following cell death. If the device is to be used in a fish farm with fresh water, the osmolarity would very likely be lower than the yeast culture. In light of this possibility, we are also looking into another mechanism of S. cerevisiae that is used when it is subjected to low osmolarity stress. It is called the cell integrity pathway, and is activated upon decreasing osmolarity of the environment. We hope to find similar functioning effectors downstream of the pathway like we did in the HOG pathway, and integrate the activated promoters with kill genes. If succeeded, our safety design will not be restricted to saltwater fish farms.<br/></p>
          
          
         <b>What safety training have you received?</b><br/><br/>
         <b>What safety training have you received?</b><br/><br/>
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                 <p class="header"><i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i></p>
                 <p class="header"><i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i></p>
             </section>
             </section>
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                        <p><i><b>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</b></i> is a species of yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast, having been instrumental to winemaking, baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skin of grapes (one can see the yeast as a component of the thin white film on the skins of some dark-colored fruits such as plums; it exists among the waxes of the cuticle). It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model bacterium. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. S. cerevisiae cells are round to ovoid, 5–10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by a division process known as budding.</p>
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                        <p>Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes.</p>
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                        <p><h5>Reference: Wikipedia</h5></p>
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                    <h5>"Budding Yeast and Friend Fan Page <a href="https://www.facebook.com/yeastandfriends"> Link</a>"</h5>
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                 <p>UCP1 can transport protons through two different hypothesized mechanisms. In the first model, UCP1 transfers protons from intermembrane space to mitochondria matrix. Fatty acids provide essential free carboxy groups catalyzing proton (H+) translocation. In this model, Coenzyme Q(CoQ) serves as a necessary cofactor of UCP1, activating the protein functions.</p>
                 <p>UCP1 can transport protons through two different hypothesized mechanisms. In the first model, UCP1 transfers protons from intermembrane space to mitochondria matrix. Fatty acids provide essential free carboxy groups catalyzing proton (H+) translocation. In this model, Coenzyme Q(CoQ) serves as a necessary cofactor of UCP1, activating the protein functions.</p>
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                 <p>In the second model, free fatty acids (FFAs) combine with protons with carboxy groups, then flipping across inner mitochondria membrane. After FFAs flipping to the matrix side, UCP1 removes protons from carboxy groups, flipping the anion form FFAs back to the innermembrane space. (fig.??)The anion form FFAs bind to protons again, transferring more protons into the matrix. </p>
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                 <p>In the second model, free fatty acids (FFAs) combine with protons with carboxy groups, then flipping across inner mitochondria membrane. After FFAs flipping to the matrix side, UCP1 removes protons from carboxy groups, flipping the anion form FFAs back to the innermembrane space. (fig.2)The anion form FFAs bind to protons again, transferring more protons into the matrix. </p>
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                 <div class="tip">(fig.??)</div>
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                 <div class="tip">(fig.2)</div>
                 <p>Through these two div mechanisms, proton gradient on either side of inner membrane are formed. Generally, the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP into ATP takes place within the mitochondrial inner membrane respiratory chain. However, the coupling of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis is not complete (Nicholls, 1974; Brand, 1977). Thus in several tissues there is a proton leak through the inner mitochondrial membrane that is not associated with ATP synthesis. And in these tissues, UCPs produce heat.
                 <p>Through these two div mechanisms, proton gradient on either side of inner membrane are formed. Generally, the oxidative phosphorylation of ADP into ATP takes place within the mitochondrial inner membrane respiratory chain. However, the coupling of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis is not complete (Nicholls, 1974; Brand, 1977). Thus in several tissues there is a proton leak through the inner mitochondrial membrane that is not associated with ATP synthesis. And in these tissues, UCPs produce heat.
                     <span class="tipReveal">[*]</span><br/>
                     <span class="tipReveal">[*]</span><br/>
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                 <p><i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> is pigment produce yeast quite easily identifiable by distinctive orange/red colonies when grown on SDA. This distinctive color is the result of pigments that the yeast creates to block out certain wavelengths of light that would otherwise be damaging to the cell. Colony color can vary from being cream colored to orange/red/pink or yellow.<br/>
                 <p><i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> is pigment produce yeast quite easily identifiable by distinctive orange/red colonies when grown on SDA. This distinctive color is the result of pigments that the yeast creates to block out certain wavelengths of light that would otherwise be damaging to the cell. Colony color can vary from being cream colored to orange/red/pink or yellow.<br/>
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                     <i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> is a common environmental inhabitant. It can be cultured from soil, water, and air samples. It is able to scavenge nitrogenous compounds from its environment remarkably well, growing even in air which has been carefully cleaned of any fixed nitrogen contaminants. In such conditions, the nitrogen content of the dry weight of <i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> can drop as low as 1%, compared to around 14% for most bacteria growing in normal conditions. <br/>
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                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp<i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> is a common environmental inhabitant. It can be cultured from soil, water, and air samples. It is able to scavenge nitrogenous compounds from its environment remarkably well, growing even in air which has been carefully cleaned of any fixed nitrogen contaminants. In such conditions, the nitrogen content of the dry weight of <i><u>Rhodotorula</u></i> can drop as low as 1%, compared to around 14% for most bacteria growing in normal conditions. <br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspThe increasing cost of vegetable oils is turning the use of microbial lipids into a competitive alternative for the production of biodiesel fuel. The oleaginous yeast <i><u>Rhodotorula glutinis</u></i> is able to use a broad range of carbon sources for lipid production, and is able to resist some of the inhibitors commonly released during hydrolysis of lignocellulose materials. <br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspThe increasing cost of vegetable oils is turning the use of microbial lipids into a competitive alternative for the production of biodiesel fuel. The oleaginous yeast <i><u>Rhodotorula glutinis</u></i> is able to use a broad range of carbon sources for lipid production, and is able to resist some of the inhibitors commonly released during hydrolysis of lignocellulose materials. <br/>
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                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspSo we choose R.g. for the Expression vector.<br/>
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                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp So we choose <i>R.g.</i> for the Expression system.<br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspThermogenic yeast relies on cultural media to grow and to generate heat. This way, the Yeastherm is kind of like burning media as fuel, which is expensive compared with other heating methods such as gas, coal, or electricity. To make our project a more competitive choice when considering large-scale heat production such as heating up a pound in the winter, it is necessary to reduce the cost of culturing yeast. Thanks to previous study in the field of biofuel, we have several solutions of cheaper substitutions of cultural medium contents.<br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspThermogenic yeast relies on cultural media to grow and to generate heat. This way, the Yeastherm is kind of like burning media as fuel, which is expensive compared with other heating methods such as gas, coal, or electricity. To make our project a more competitive choice when considering large-scale heat production such as heating up a pound in the winter, it is necessary to reduce the cost of culturing yeast. Thanks to previous study in the field of biofuel, we have several solutions of cheaper substitutions of cultural medium contents.<br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspAccording to Jie Tao and his colleague’s study, agricultural and forestry residues can be used as an alternative of carbon source, taking advantage of <i><u>Rhodotorula glutinis’s</u></i> ability to assimilate xylose.[1]  Agricultural residues such as rice straw and corn stalk are usually burned after harvest. Using these materials not only lower the expense but also benefits the environment. Raw materials like rice or wheat straw are first cut into pieces of appropriate size. They are then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid with boiling water bath, turninig into hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. Saccharides can be obtained in supernatant after centrifugation and washings of the residue with hot water. <br/>
                     &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbspAccording to Jie Tao and his colleague’s study, agricultural and forestry residues can be used as an alternative of carbon source, taking advantage of <i><u>Rhodotorula glutinis’s</u></i> ability to assimilate xylose.[1]  Agricultural residues such as rice straw and corn stalk are usually burned after harvest. Using these materials not only lower the expense but also benefits the environment. Raw materials like rice or wheat straw are first cut into pieces of appropriate size. They are then hydrolyzed using sulfuric acid with boiling water bath, turninig into hemicellulosic hydrolyzate. Saccharides can be obtained in supernatant after centrifugation and washings of the residue with hot water. <br/>
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                     [2]Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid<br/>
                     [2]Oil production by oleaginous yeasts using the hydrolysate from pretreatment of wheat straw with dilute sulfuric acid<br/>
                     Bioresource Technology Volume 102, Issue 10, May 2011, Pages 6134–6140<br/>
                     Bioresource Technology Volume 102, Issue 10, May 2011, Pages 6134–6140<br/>
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                    [3]http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852411002872#b0075<br/>
 
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