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There are two solutions to \(ax^2 + bx + c = 0\) and they are $$x = {-b \pm \sqrt{b^2-4ac} \over 2a}.$$

Bacterial Lab Protocols

1.4% Agar

In 500mL Duran bottle insert:

Reagent Required Quantity
Agar 7g
RO H2O 500mL

5X M9 Salts

In 500mL Duran bottle insert:

Reagent Required Quantity
Na2HPO4 32g
KH2PO4 7.5g
NaCl 1.25g
NH4Cl 2.5g
RO HCL 500ml

0.1M CaCl2/15% glycerol

In a 50mL Falcon insert:

Reagent Required Quantity (mL)
1M CaCl2 5
100% Glycerol 7.5
RO H2O 37.5

Minimal Agar


Reagent Required Quantity
5x M9 Salts 10mL
2 mg/ml Thiamine 50µl
20% D Glucose 1 mL
1M CaCl2 5µl
1M MgSO4 100µl
1.4% Agar 39 mL

LB Media

In 500mL Duran bottle insert:

Reagent Required Quantity
LB Broth 10g
RO H2O 500 mL

Generating Competence Cells

Locate a glycerol stock of untransformed E. coli, streak cells onto minimal agar plates and incubate at 37C for 16 hours.

Once complete, pick a colony from the plate and place into a 50mL Falcon, containing 5mL LB & 100 uL 1M MgSO4 for 16 hours.

After this, inoculate a 100mL shake flask with 1mL of culture from the Falcon tube. Take absorbance readings every 30 minutes until the absorbance reading is above 0.3. Once this is achieved, transfer the contents into two 50mL Falcon tubes and place on ice for 10 minutes. Perform centrifugation (~6,000 RPM) for 5 minutes and then resuspend in 10mL Calcium Chloride. Aliquot into eppendorf tubes (~500 uL per tube) and then store at very low temperatures (<-50C).

Streaking Plates

Obtain agar plates (as many as required), streaking loops and cells to be streaked. Dip a streaking loop in the cell culture, and gently (so there is no damage to the agar) streak the loop onto the plate as described in the diagram below. Once finished, incubate at 37C overnight.

Plate generation (AMP, CMP & NoDrug)

Heat up 50 mL of agar until molten (usually ~300 seconds using a 800W microwave). Douse in cold water to lower temperature. When still warm, but able to handle, it is possible to add an antibiotic drug for selection purposes (~50 uL). Once this complete, pour ~10mL into a petri dish and ensure that the whole surface is covered. Leave lid off for 30 minutes. Place lid on dish and then use, or store at ~5C.

Glycerol Stock Generation

Into a 15mL Falcon tube insert:

Reagent Required Quantity
LB Media 3mL
Culture 3 µl
Relevant Anti-bioitc 3 µl
12-16 hour incubation (37C). Insert into 1.5mL microcentrifuge tubes. Note absorbance readings. Add below, then store at -20C.
Reagent Required Quantity (µl)
Culture 500
Glycerol Stock 166

50X to 1X Dilution

To a 1L Duran bottle, insert:

Reagent Required Quantity (mL)
50X TAE Buffer 20
RO H2O 980


1) Remove one of your aliquots of competent cells from the -80C freezer and place onto ice. 2) Add ~2uL of DNA to the competent cells. Leave in ice for ~45 minutes. 3) Place tubes into 37C water bath for 10 minutes (heat shock). 4) Place tubes into ice for 2 minutes. 5) Add 1.3mL of Lb to the tubes and transfer all of the contents to new tubes. Incubate for 1 hour at 37C. 6) Centrifuge at high RPM for 2 minutes. Discard the supernatant. 7) Resuspend cell pellet into 100uL of LB. 8) Spread contents onto petri dishes containing LB agar (may also contain antibiotic resistance for better selectivity. 9) Incubate for 16 hours at 37C and then pick colonies if growth has occurred.

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Mammalian Lab Protocols

Passaging Adherent Cells

In order to keep cells healthy or increase stock, they must be sub-cultured - moving some cells from a previous culture into a new container with fresh growth medium. Here, we assume a 100mm dish. All solutions/equipment that come in contact with the cells must be sterile and work must be done in a laminar flow hood.

1) Pipette spent medium and discard to waste.

2) Gently wash cells with PBS (5-10mL), then remove PBS to waste. Be careful not to disturb the cellular monolayer. This removes serum residue with trypsin inhibitors.

3) Add trypsin (2-5mL) to suspend cells. Ensure monolayer is covered. Incubate for 3-5 minutes at 37C.

NOTE: Care should be taken to avoid leaving cells exposed to the trypsin longerthan necessary. Care should also be taken that the cells not be forced to detach prematurely, as this may result in clumping.

4)Add serum-containing medium(10mL) and pipette the cells up and down until the cells are dispersed into a single cells suspension.

5) Add the appropriate volume of cell suspension (dependent on confluence/cell count - generally for 100% confluence split 1:4) to a new flask/dish containing medium (end volume 10mL).

7) Place dish(es) in incubator at 37C. Leave for 3-4 days before next passage.

Stable Transfection Of Adherent Cells

For the stable transfection of eukaryotic adherent cell types in a single well of a 6-well plate. When transfecting multiple wells, make a 'master mix' with 110% of all solutions.

1) The day before transfection, seed 0.9-4x10^5 cell per well of the six well plate with 2ml of appropriate growth medium. This should produce a confluence of 40-80% for the next day's transfection.

2) Incubate cells in their normal growth conditions (37^0 C and 5% CO2)for 24 hours.

3) Dilute 2µg of DNA dissolved in TE buffer (min conc. 0.1µg/µl) with serum, protein and antibiotic free medium (to avoid macromolecular interference with complex formation) to a total of 100µl. Mix.

4) Add 10µl of superfect (SF) reagent to the solution. Vortex for 10 seconds.

5) Incubate at room temperature for 5-10mins to allow for complex formation.

6) Meanwhile, gently aspirate growth medium from dish and wash cells with 3ml.

7) Add 600µl of cell growth medium (with serum and antibiotics)to reaction tube. Mix up and down with pipette and immediately transfer total volume to well.

8) Change medium and wash with PBS.

9) Incubate for 24-48 hours.

9) Assay for gene expression.