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General Design

Wet Lab





Dry Lab



Future Work


Works Cited & Further Reading


The Problem
1. Konturek JW (2003 Dec). «Discovery by Jaworski of Helicobacter pylori and its pathogenetic role in peptic ulcer, gastritis and gastric cancer». J Physiol Pharmacol. 54 Suppl 3: pp. 23–41. PMID 15075463.
2. Tsuji S, Kawai N, Tsujii M, Kawano S, Hori M (2003). «Review article: inflammation-related promotion of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis - a perigenetic pathway». Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18 (Suppl 1): pp. 82–9.
3. Blaser, M. J. (2006). "Who are we? Indigenous microbes and the ecology of human diseases". EMBO Reports 7 (10): 956–60.
4. European Helicobacter pylori Study Group. «Current Concepts in the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection». The Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report.
5. Suerbaum S, Michetti P (October 2002). "Helicobacter pylori infection". N. Engl. J. Med. 347 (15): 1175–86.
6. Kusters JG, van Vliet AH, Kuipers EJ (July 2006). "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection". Clin Microbiol Rev 19 (3): 449–90.
7. Graham DY, Lew GM, Evans DG, Evans DJ, Klein PD (August 1991). "Effect of triple therapy (antibiotics plus bismuth) on duodenal ulcer healing. A randomized controlled trial". Ann. Intern. Med. 115 (4): 266–9. PMID 1854110.
8. Fischbach L, Evans EL (August 2007). "Meta-analysis: the effect of antibiotic resistance status on the efficacy of triple and quadruple first-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 26 (3): 343–57. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03386.x. PMID 17635369.
9. Graham DY, Shiotani A (June 2008). "Newer concepts regarding resistance in the treatment Helicobacter pylori infections". Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 5 (6): 321–31
10. Pounder RE, Ng D (1995). "The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in different countries". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 9 (Suppl 2): 33–9.
11. Goodman KJ, O'rourke K, Day RS, et al (December 2005). «Dynamics of Helicobacter pylori infection in a US-Mexico cohort during the first two years of life». Int J Epidemiol 34 (6): pp. 1348–55.
12. Jaime et al. Incidencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori en una cohorte de lactantes en el estado de Morelos. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2001, vol.43, n.2, pp. 122-126
13. Zhang L, Yu J, Wong CC, Ling TK, Li ZJ, Chan KM, Ren SX, Shen J, Chan RL, Lee CC. Cathelicidin protects against Helicobacter pylori colonization and the associated gastritis in mice. Gene Ther. 2012;:Dec 20;.

The Solution
1. Nealson, K.H., and Hastings, J.W. (1979) Bacterial biolumi- nescence: its control and ecological significance. Microbiol Rev 43: 496–518.
2. Kleerebezem, M., Quadri, L.E., Kuipers, O.P., and de Vos, W.M. (1997) Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two-component signal transduction systems in Gram- positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol 24: 895–904.
3. Rader, B. A., Wreden, C., Hicks, K. G., Sweeney, E. G., Ottemann, K. M. and Guillemin, K. (2011). Helicobacter pylori perceives the quorum-sensing molecule AI-2 as a chemorepellent via the chemoreceptor TlpB. Microbiology 157, 2445-55.
4. Schauder, S., K. Shokat, M. G. Surette, and B. L. Bassler. 2001. The LuxS family of bacterial autoinducers: biosynthesis of a novel quorum-sensing signal molecule. Mol. Microbiol. 41:463–476.
5. Taga ME, Miller ST, Bassler BL. Lsr-mediated transport and 
processing of AI-2 in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 
2003; 50:1411-1427.
6. Taga ME, Semmelhack JL, Bassler BL. The LuxS-dependent 
autoinducer AI-2 controls the expression of an ABC transport- er that functions in AI-2 uptake in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 2001; 42:777-793.
7. Wang L, Hashimoto Y, Tsao CY, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein influence both synthesis and uptake of extracellular autoinducer 2 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 2005; 187:2066-2076.
8. Xavier KB, Bassler BL. Interference with AI-2-mediated bac- terial cell-cell communication. Nature 2005; 437:750-753.
9. Xavier KB, Bassler BL. Regulation of uptake and processing of the quorum-sensing autoinducer AI-2 in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 2005; 187:238-248.

10. Wang L, Li J, March JC, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE. luxS-dependent gene regulation in Escherichia coli K-12 revealed by genomic expression profiling. J Bacteriol 2005; 187:8350- 8360.
11. Li J, Attila C, Wang L, et al. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli is signaled by AI-2/LsrR: effects on small RNA and bio- film architecture. J Bacteriol 2007; 189:6011-6020.

Antimicrobial peptide
1. Zhang L, Yu J, Wong CC, Ling TK, Li ZJ, Chan KM, Ren SX, Shen J, Chan RL, Lee CC. Cathelicidin protects against Helicobacter pylori colonization and the associated gastritis in mice. Gene Ther. 2012;:Dec 20;.
2. Hase K, Murakami M, Iimura M, Cole SP, Horibe Y, Ohtake T et al. Expression of LL-37 by human gastric epithelial cells as a potential host defense mechanism against Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 1613–1625.
3. J. Krahulec, M. Hyršová, S. Pepeliaev, J. Jílková, Z. Cerny ́, J. Machálková, High level expression and purification of antimicrobial human cathelicidin LL-37 in Escherichia coli, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 88 (2010) 167–175.
4. Oren, Z., Lerman, J. C., Gudmundsson, G. H., Agerberth, B. & Shai, Y. (1999). Structure and organization of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in phospholipid membranes: relevance to the molecular basis for its non-cell-selective activity. Biochem J 341, 501–513.
5. Jenssen, H., Hamill, P. & Hancock, R. E. (2006). Peptide antimicrobial agents. Clin Microbiol Rev 19, 491–511.
6. Reddy KVR, Yedery RD, Aranha C (2004) Antimicrobial peptides: premises and promises. Int J Antimicrobial Agents 24:536–547
7. Hong IP, Lee SJ, Kim YS, Choi SG (2007) Recombinant expression of the human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) in Pichia pastoris. Biotechnol Lett 29:73–78
8. Li Y, Li X, Wang G (2006) Cloning, expression, isotope labeling, and purification of human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in Escherichia coli for NMR studies. Protein Expr Purif 47:498–505
9. Turner J, Cho Y, Dinh NN, Waring AJ (1998) Activities of LL-37, a cathelin-associated antimicrobial peptide of human neutrophils. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:2206–2214